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As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission is not posted on a pre-print server.
  • The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, or RTF document file format.
  • Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  • The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.

The Digital Journal of Ophthalmology publishes Original Articles, Case reports, Grand Rounds, Images and Videos, Editorials, and Review Articles. All submissions must conform to the stylistic and grammatical principles of standard written US English. Manuscripts with grammatical errors will be returned to the author without formal review. Non-native English speakers are strongly encouraged to have their manuscripts reviewed by a native English speaker prior to submission.


Step 1: Document Information

  • Title of the article: meaningful and brief
  • Summary: one to two sentences highlighting the most important elements of the piece geared toward the general public
  • Keywords: list of words to help categorize the article


Step 2: Author Information

  • Provide first name, middle initial, last name, advanced degree, department, and institution
    • NOTE: First name should include first name and middle initial (ie, Laise E.)
    • NOTE: Last name should include all academic degree(s) (ie, Aye, MD)
  • Read the Transfer of Copyright Agreement, sign it and email a scanned copy to djo@harvard.edu. Manuscripts will not be reviewed unless we receive this document.

Step 3: Document Body

  • Cut and Paste just the text into the appropriate sections. NOTE: Please be sure to reference all images/figures/tables in the text (ie, "Multiple treatments may be needed (Figure 1)."
  • Please refer to reference examples below. 

Step 4: Images/Tables/Figures

  • Images should be uploaded into the section in which the figure is referred to (ie, A picture of a CT scan can be specially uploaded into the Ancillary Testing section for a Grand Rounds case; A table of data can be uploaded into the Results section for an Original Article case).


Reference guidelines

In the text, please designate references with arabic numerals, placed within parenthesis, following all punctuation (except semicolons). The reference list should follow the text.

  1. List only references that you have read and that are pertinent to the manuscript.
  2. Cite only published studies as references. You may acknowledge "unpublished date" or "submitted" articles within parentheses in the text. Reference to a "personal communication" within parentheses in the text must be accompanied by a signed permission letter from the individual being cited.
  3. Abstracts such as those published in the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) annual meeting programs are considered "unpublished" and should be cited in parentheses in the text.
  4. Oral or poster presentations are similarly unpublished and may be cited only in parentheses in the text. Platform and poster presentations at annual meetings are customarily indicated: (Smith AV, presented at the AAO Annual Meeting, New Orleans, 1998).
  5. Books or articles "in press" may be cited as numbered references. These must be updated before publication, if possible.

Journal abbreviations should be those used by the National Library of Medicine, as found in Index Medicus. If in doubt as to the correct abbreviation, cite the complete journal name. Please follow precisely the format and punctuation shown in the following example. Please contact Digital Journal of Ophthalmology with questions. Do not use periods in abbreviations of journal titles or author's initials.

Journal Article (If four of fewer authors, list all)
Owsley C, Stalvey B, Wells J, Sloane ME. Older drivers and cataract: driving habits and crash risk.J Gerontol A Bio Sci Med Sci 1999; 54:M203-11.

Journal Article (If five or more authors, list only the first three and add et al)
Pasco S, Han J, Gillery P, et al. A specific sequence of the noncollagenous domain of the alpha 3(IV) chain of type IV collagen inhibits expression and activation of matrix metalloproteinases by tumor cells. Cancer Res 2000;60:767-73.

Chapter in a Book
Port M. Cosmetic and prosthetic contact lenses. In: Phillips AJ, Stone J, eds. Contact Lenses. London: Butterworth, 1989; chap. 21.

Dowling JE. The Retina: An Approachable Part of the Brain. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University, 1987:164-86.

Online Journal Article
Wick JP, Vernon DD. Visual impairment and driving restrictions. Digital Journal of Ophthalmology [serial online]. 2002;8. Available at meei/OA/Wick/index.html. Accessed January 6, 2003.

World Wide Web Site
Digital Journal of Ophthalmology. Patient information on macular degeneration. Available at: meei/PI/macdegen/macdegen.html. Accessed January 6, 2003.


Conflict of Interest

The Digital Journal of Ophthalmology requires a statement in the acknowledgement section of all manuscripts delineating any conflict of interest that each author has. This includes current or previous financial involvement with a company that manufactures a product mentioned in the manuscript or a company that manufactures a product in competition with a product mentioned in the manuscript. Any employment, consulting or advising positions with related companies must also be disclosed including speaker bureaus, grant support or lecture fees.



Human/Animal Rights and Informed Consent

The Digital Journal of Ophthalmology requires that all manuscripts utilizing human subjects for investigation report that all subjects signed a statement of informed consent. Studies conducted in the United States of America must be compliant with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). Institutional Review Board (IRB) or Ethics Committee approval must be obtained if the study utilizes human subjects or reviews medical records. If there is no IRB or Ethics committee, the authors should state whether their study adhered to the tenets of the of the Declaration of Helsinki. Clinical trials must be registered with one of the public information sites for clinical research. Finally, use of animals must be approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. The Digital Journal of Ophthalmology will not publish any manuscript that has not clearly demonstrated respect for Human and Animal rights. This should be delineated in the Acknowledgements section.


Images & Videos: 

Submissions should contain a high resolution image, image montage, or video. This multimedia feature should be accompanied by a descriptive caption of up to 250 words with no references. Images and videos must be of sufficiently high quality to be considered for publication. This would typically not include mobile phone photographs, screen captures, and images of images. Lighting should appropriately expose the finding of interest. Image and Video submissions are reviewed by the Editorial Board. Please note that images that are not of high enough quality will be rejected. Authors will be restricted to no more than 2 submissions to this section per year.

File Types

1. Images should be high-resolution JPEG files of at least 300 pixels/inch.  If the file is a single image, the minimum size is 300 pixels in width.  If the file is a montage of multiple images, the minimum size is 600 pixels in width. 

2. Videos should be MP4 files with a minimum resolution of 720p.

3. Descriptive captions should be Microsoft Word documents with coninuous marginal line numbering (via page setup).